References in this document to Hong Kong are to Hong Kong SAR, to Macau are to Macao SAR and to Taiwan are to the Taiwan region.


Available tonne kilometres or ATK

Overall capacity, measured in tonnes available for the carriage of airline passengers, excess baggage, cargo and mail on each flight sector multiplied by the sector distance


Biogenic emissions

CO2 emissions from the combustion or biodegradation of biomass

Building Environmental Assessment Method or BEAM

A method of assessing building sustainability performance in Hong Kong


Carbon Dioxide Equivalent or CO2e

A measure of the global warming potential of releases of the six greenhouse gases specified by the Kyoto protocol. These are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

Carbon neutral

The balancing of every unit of anthropogenic CO2 emitted with an equivalent amount of CO2 removed, for example by carbon sequestration

Carbon offsets

Reduction, removal, or avoidance of GHG emissions from a specific project that compensates for GHG emissions occurring elsewhere

Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation or CORSIA

A scheme adopted by ICAO which aims to stabilise emissions from international civil aviation at 2020 levels

Certified sustainable seafood

Seafood that comes from well managed and sustainable fisheries and is certified by the Marine Stewardship Council or other certification bodies

Circular economy

An economic system in which resources are kept in use for as long as possible, recovered and reused at the end of their service lives

The potential negative impact of climate change on an organisation

See also Physical risks, Transitional risks

Cold drink equipment or CDE

Includes vending machines, coolers and fountains

Cubic metres or cbm

A metric unit of volume or capacity equal to 1,000 litres or 1.0 metric tonne of water


Drink Without Waste or #DWW

A coalition (of beverages producers and bottlers, waste management enterprises and NGOs) which wants to reduce waste generated from beverage consumption in Hong Kong


Ellen MacArthur Foundation’s New Plastics Economy Group

A group which aims to reduce the environmental footprint of plastics through better packaging and more recycling

Employee category

Classification of employees into categories based on experience, seniority and responsibility

See also Individual Contributor, Team Leader, Operational Leader, Strategic Leader

Enterprise Risk Management or ERM

The identification, assessment, monitoring and management of risks that may interfere with an enterprise's operations and objectives

Euro II / Euro III / Euro IIIA / Euro IV / Euro VI

European emission standards that define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of vehicles


Fly Greener

A voluntary carbon offset programme which offers Cathay Pacific passengers the opportunity to offset their carbon footprint from air travel

Frozen efficiency baseline

A baseline from which performance is projected, assuming no improvement in current efficiencies

FSC certified

Certification for timber products that indicates it was sourced from responsibly managed forests or recycled sources in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council Principles and Criteria


Gender pay gap

Measures the difference in pay between women and men. It is a measure across all jobs within a particular category, not of the difference in pay between men and women for doing the same job. In Swire Pacific, gender pay gap is calculated as the percentage differences in annual pay between women and men by employee categories

Global Reporting Initiative or GRI

An international standards organisation that helps businesses, governments and other organisations to understand and communicate their impact on critical sustainability issues such as climate change, human rights, governance and social wellbeing

Greenhouse gas or GHG

A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation

See also Scope 1 emissions, Scope 2 emissions, Scope 3 emissions


High-density polyethylene (HDPE)

A type of plastic commonly used as packaging for food, beverages, personal care products and household products

HKEX ESG Reporting Guide

The Environmental, Social and Governance Reporting Guide in Appendix 27 to The Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited


Individual Contributor

Entry level and first-line employees with no direct reports

See also Employee category, Team Leader, Operational Leader, Strategic Leader

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or IPCC

An intergovernmental body of the United Nations that provides scientific information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of the risk of human-induced climate change and its natural, political, and economic impacts

International Civil Aviation Organisation or ICAO

A United Nations body which manages the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation

International Maritime Organisation or IMO

A United Nations agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine and atmospheric pollution by ships


Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design or LEED

A green building rating system devised by the United States Green Building Council

Location-based method

A way of calculating Scope 2 emissions that reflects the average emissions intensity of the grids on which energy consumption occurs, using mostly local, subnational or national grid-average emission factors

Lost Day Rate or LDR

Is the number of lost scheduled working days per 100 employees per year. It is calculated as the total days lost multiplied by 200,000 and then divided by total hours worked. The factor 200,000 is the annual hours worked by 100 employees, based on 40 hours per week for 50 weeks a year

Lost Time Injury Rate or LTIR

Is the number of injuries per 100 employees per year. It is calculated as the total injuries multiplied by 200,000 and then divided by total hours worked. The factor 200,000 is the annual hours worked by 100 employees, based on 40 hours per week for 50 weeks a year


Market-based method

A way of calculating Scope 2 emissions that reflects the emissions from energy that an organisation has specifically chosen to purchase. Emissions factors are derived from contractual instruments (i.e. contracts to purchase energy bundled with attributes about the energy generation, or unbundled attribute claims)


Operational Leader

Middle managers leading other managers within a function, product line or region

See also Employee category, Individual Contributor, Team Leader, Strategic Leader


Physical risk

Physical risks include extreme weather, changes in rainfall and temperature and increases in sea levels

See also Climate-related risks, Transitional risks

Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET

A type of plastic commonly used for water and other drink bottles and for food containers


Representative Concentration Pathways or RCPs

RCPs are prescribed pathways for greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations (not emissions), together with land use change, that are consistent with a set of broad climate outcomes used by the climate modelling community. Four RCPs are used by the IPCC’s fifth assessment report (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5).

RCP 2.6 represents hard emissions cuts, which are likely to keep warming below 2°C.

RCP 4.5 and 6.0 are intermediate stabilisation scenarios.

RCP 8.5 represents a scenario where little effort is made to reduce emissions and curb warming by 2100. This is usually taken as the worst-case climate scenario

Revenue tonne kilometres or RTK

Traffic volume, measured in load tonnes from the carriage of passengers, excess baggage, cargo and mail on each sector multiplied by the flight sector distance



Science Based Targets initiative. A collaboration between CDP, the United Nations Global Compact, World Resources Institute and WWF which encourages organisations to set science-based targets

Science-based target or SBT

A target to reduce GHG emissions that is in line with the level of decarbonisation required to keep the global temperature increase below 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial temperatures

Scope 1 emissions

Direct GHG emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by an organisation

See also Greenhouse gas or GHG, Scope 2 emissions, Scope 3 emissions

Scope 2 emissions

Indirect GHG emissions from consumption by an organisation of purchased electricity, heat and steam

See also Greenhouse gas or GHG, Scope 1 emissions, Scope 3 emissions

Scope 3 emissions

GHG emissions in an organisation’s supply chain or generated by its customers

See also Greenhouse gas or GHG, Scope 1 emissions, Scope 2 emissions

Strategic Leader

Managers leading functions, multiple functions, departments, regions or small operating companies

See also Employee category, Individual Contributor, Team Leader, Operational Leader


Swire Pacific’s sustainable development strategy, which deals with climate, waste, water, people and communities


Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures or TCFD

An organisation which develops voluntary, consistent, climate-related financial risk disclosures for use by organisations


The Coca-Cola Company Limited

Team Leader

First-line supervisors and junior managers leading teams of Individual Contributors

See also Employee category, Individual Contributor, Operational Leader, Strategic Leader

Total injuries

The number of injuries in a year which result in lost time of a minimum of one scheduled working day

Transitional risks

Risks associated with the transition to a lower carbon economy, which may arise from changes in policy, law, technology and markets and which include risks to reputation

See also Climate-related risk, Physical risks


United Nations Sustainable Development Goals or UN SDGs

A set of 17 goals, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which aim to provide a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet


Water consumption

The volume of water that is used in products, in the production of crops, or has been consumed by humans or livestock, and is therefore not released back to the environment or a third-party.

Water replenishment

Swire Coca-Cola works with TCCC to replenish its water use through partnership projects that help conserve, clean, store or make accessible an equivalent amount of water for nature and people. TCCC has a target to replenish 100% of its direct water use

Water stress

According to WRI Aqueduct, baseline water stress measures the ratio of total water withdrawals to available renewable surface and groundwater supplies. Higher values indicate more competition among users

Water use ratio or WUR

The number of litres of water used to produce a litre of product. It is calculated as total water used divided by total production volume

Water withdrawal

The sum of all water drawn from surface water, groundwater, or a third party for any use over the course of the reporting period

World Resources Institute or WRI

A research organisation that focuses on challenges that must be addressed to reduce poverty, increase economic growth and protect natural systems